International Journal of Small Economies

an International peer-reviewed academic journal on public policy in small economies and nations, island nations and developing countries

Supplementary Style Sheet

This style sheet gives guidance and examples to help authors format their papers for publication in the International Journal of Small Economies.  It specifies our preferred spellings, capitalization and punctuation, the formatting of articles, and referencing for articles, commentaries, and briefings.  If further guidance is needed, please contact IJSE at

Spelling, Capitalization and Punctuation

Spelling: The journal follows the first preference spellings in the Oxford English Dictionary, thus ‘z’ in words such as ‘criticize’, ‘organization’, ‘radicalize’, etc (but ‘analyse’); and always English-English, thus cheque not check, labour not labor, and programme not program, but computer program, etc.

Punctuation: Full stops used after all initials and abbreviations, except when final letter is the same as for the original word. E.g. ed. But eds – M.C. for initials but Dr, Mr – Rt Hon.

Quotations: In single quotation marks if in text, with double quotation marks for quotations within quotations.  Double quotation marks also for ‘scare quotes’ – that is when used to indicate emphasis or irony.

Capitalization: Minimum use of capitals unless for proper names. Lower case generically for government, ministries, departments, prime ministers, presidents, summits, committees, commissions, etc. unless used as a proper name, e.g. the Richmond Commission, President Nyerere, the Ministry of Finance, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, etc.

Proper names: Political parties etc. spelled out the first time used, with initial caps – e.g. Barbados Labour Party – thereafter as acronym BLP. British parties always spelled out – e.g. Conservative Party, or Conservatives. Foreign language parties in italics with only initial capital – e.g. Parti démocratique pour le rassemblement du people français – thereafter PDR.

Foreign words: Italicized – e.g. per se, ceteris paribus, ipso facto, cause célèbre. Etc. unless fully anglicized such as coup, leitmotiv etc.

Dates: 22 December 1995  not  December 22, 1995

55 BCE 1066CE not 55 BC  1066 AD

Numbers: Up to ten spelled out unless with percent or in a collection of numbers for comparison. Thereafter in figures except when used adjectivally – e.g. twenty-fifth anniversary, twentieth century, etc. All percents with figures – e.g. 9 percent.

Formatting for articles

Quotations: If substantial – i.e. longer than a sentence – indented 2 spaces from left in a block and in smaller type with no quotation marks. Line of space above and below block.

Bullets: Indented 2 spaces, with text indented 2 further spaces. Line of space above and below block of bullets.  Bullet points should be used in moderation.

Interviews: Questions in bold full out to left. Replies – opening para indented 2 spaces.


References appear as footnotes at the foot of the relevant page, numbered consecutively in smaller type than main text. The style is as follows:


Should be referred to by name of author, then title in italics, then publisher, place of publication, and date in brackets. We prefer that references give the full first name of authors, where possible. Commas should be used to separate items within a note not periods or colons.


One author:

Wignaraja, G. Small States in Transition: From Vulnerability to Competitiveness (Commonwealth Secretariat, London, 2005).

More than one author:

Baldacchino, G. and Greenwood, R. Competing Strategies of Socio-economic Development for Small Islands (Institute of Island Studies, University of Prince Edward Island, 1998).

Editor or Editors:

Igoe, J. and Kelsall, T. (eds), Between a Rock and a Hard Place: African NGOs, donors, and the state (Carolina Academic Press, Durham, NC, 2005).

American books give State abbreviated in publishing details:

Maren, M. The Road to Hell (The Free Press, New York, NY, 1997).

Vail, L. (ed.), The Creation of Tribalism in Southern Africa (University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, 1993).

Subtitles of books have opening capital only, except for proper names:

Cunningham, I. Baggara Arabs: Power and lineage in a Sudanese nomad tribe (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1998).

Chapters within edited books – the title has opening capital only, except for proper names:

Shivji, I. ‘The politics of liberalization in Tanzania’, in Campbell, H. and Stein, H. (eds), The IMF and Tanzania (Natprint, Harare, 1991), pp. 67–85.

More than one author: Cornell, M. and Thompson, T. ‘A handyman’s dictionary of useful terms’, in Peter Spooner et al. (eds), Oxford University Press Journals: A handbook (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1993).

Articles in journals also have a capital letter only for opening word and proper names/places, and full details of journals in which they appear. E.g.

Armstrong, H. W. and Read, R. “The phantom of liberty?: economic growth and the vulnerability of small states.” Journal of International Development, 14, 4 (2002), pp. 435–458.

Grey literature, which includes, governmental and non-governmental reports, pamphlets, conference papers, etc, should follow the author and title style for articles in journals, followed by (nature of publication (where appropriate) publisher (where relevant), place of publication or submission, year).  E.g.

Kelsall, T. ‘Subjectivity, collective action and the governance agenda in Arumeru East’ (Working Paper, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford, 2000).

Government of Maldives, ‘Strategic Economic Plan – Phase 1’ (Government of Maldives, Malé, 2001).

Catholic Commission for Justice and Peace, ‘Annual Report 1998’ (Catholic Commission for Justice and Peace, Harare, 1998).

Dominic Fobih, ‘Statement by the Honourable Professor Dominic K. Fobih (MP), Minister for Lands, Forestry and Mines’ (Meet-the-Press, Ministry of Information, Accra, 2005).

World Bank, ‘Staff Appraisal Report, Republic of Ghana, Mining Sector Development and Environmental Project’ (World Bank Report No. 13881-GH, Industry and Energy Operations, West Central Africa Department, Africa Region, World Bank, Washington DC), p. iv.

International Labour Organization, ‘Working Out of Poverty in Ghana: The Ghana Decent Work Pilot Programme’ (International Labour Organization, Geneva, 2004).

Some signs that a publication should be considered ‘grey literature’ include: (1) The source is authored by an organization, rather than an individual. (2) The reference contains the term ‘report’ or ‘working paper’ (3) It is published by what appears to be a non-academic publisher. (4) The work is unpublished. (5) The work is an academic conference paper.

PhD Theses: Author and title should follow the style for books. Subsequent details should appear as (University of X, unpublished PhD dissertation, Year) . Eg.

Cherry Leonardi, Knowing Authority: Colonial governance and local community in Equatoria Province, Sudan, 1900-56, (University of Durham, unpublished PhD dissertation, 2005)

Newspaper and magazine references: give details of publication, followed by the full date:

Eg Sunday Nation, 13 October 2002, p.4. or ‘Title of article’, Sunday Nation, 13 October 2002.  If the newspaper’s title or place of publication is ambiguous, please specify.  Eg The Herald [Bahamas], 21 November 2006 p.1; The Herald [Glasgow], 18 November 2006, p.2.

Parliamentary references: give source (specifying country if unclear), date and other relevant information. Eg.

Hansard (Commons), 24 May 1949, col.438

Government of Zimbabwe, Parliamentary Debates, 16 August 1995, vol. 22 no. 29, 1643-4.

Legislation and court cases: Give title and date of Act.  Limited other information may be included if relevant. Eg:

Government of Cape Verde, Welfare Organisations Amendment Act, (1995).

Republic of Seychelles, Law to Supplement Book One of the Civil Code and to Institute Part Five Regarding Matrimonial Regimes, Liberalities and Successions, (1999).

Internet sources should give the author (if appropriate) and title of page, followed by internet address and date accessed in parentheses.  E.g.:

Jamie Gama, ‘Portugal and the transformed NATO’ NATO Official Home Page available at < > (26 July 1996).

‘United Nations in Brief’ UN Information Services and other Related Links <> (26 July 1996).

Interviews: Always specify place and date. Limited other information should be included if appropriate. Eg:

Interview, Suva, Fiji, 28 July 1998.

Interview, Ex-President of Chamber of Commerce, Bridgetown, Barbados, 19 January 2003.

Interview, Lecturer, University of Mauritius/Department of Geology, Port Louis, 26 August 2005.

Interview, Kit Chambers, Trinidad Association of Lawyers, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, 11 September 1995

Subsequent references

All subsequent references should give surname of author and brief title of book, article, or web article. E.g. MacMichael, History of Arabs or Kelsall ‘Subjectivity, collective action and the governance agenda’Ibid. may be used where a subsequent reference follows immediately, but op. cit. and loc. cit. are not used.

May 2008

Share This Article

Related Posts


There are no comments on this entry.


There are no trackbacks on this entry.